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The External Ear consists of (a) the pinna or the cartilage which focuses sound, and (b) the external auditory meatus, which is the opening to the canal that reaches from the bottom of the pinna to the tympanitic membrane.


The Middle Ear consists of (a) the tympanic membrane or drum of ear, for vibrating in response to sounds focused on it by the pinna and communicated via the external auditory meatus, (b) the Ossicles or small bones (Malleus, Incus, Stapes), which carry on the vibrations of the tympanum to the vestibule; and (c) the Eustachian Tube or the pipe communicating between the pharynx and middle ear.

The Internal Ear or Labyrinth consists of three parts. The Vestibule is the central part of the labyrinth. The semi-circular canals are three arched osseous canals, placed above and behind the vestibule. The Cochlea is the tapering spinal end, wherein are distributed the inferior branches of the Auditory Nerve


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