GENITAL SYSTEM ANATOMY
GENITAL SYSTEM ANATOMY
In the Male—The external organ is the penis; it consists of a body, root (buried in the perineum) and the conical end or glans. The body of penis is composed of two cylindrical corpora cavernosa (the spaces of which become filled with blood during erection of the penis) and a corpus spongiosum urethra, through which urine passes out along the urethral canal. These three are enclosed in a loose fibrous sheath and the entire penis is suspended from the pubis by means of a ligament. Glans Penis is the pointed anterior end of the penis; its opening is called the meatus: the projecting margin of its base is called the corona glandis, the constriction behind is called the neck of the penis. The skin of the penis is loose and non-hairy and over the glans it is reflected as a free fold called prepuce.
The corpus spongiosum and the corpora cavernosa are continued backwards in the perineum (or that triangular portion which is included between the scrotum in front and anus behind). The corpus spongiosum, very near the anus, forms a dilated end, the bulb and thence the urethra passes into the bladder via the prostate gland.
The other external organ in the male is the scrotum bag containing the testes (one on each side) suspended inside scrotum by spermatic cords. The central partition of the scrotum is marked on the surface along the middle line a ridge called raphae.
Turning now to the internal organs of generation, we have—prostate gland, the testicles, the epididymis, the seminal tubes, the spermatic cord, each of which we briefly referred to here. Prostate gland adjoins the neck of bladder and surrounds the beginning of the urethra. It has three lobes and its apex is directed anteriorly. The testes are glandular organs, suspended inside the scrotum by the spermatic cords, which are attached to their posterior borders. Each testes consists of (a) a body which is anterior and (b) the Epididymis, placed posteriorly. On section, each testes is found to be divided into lobules and containing the secreting cells and seminiferous tubules. The Epididymis is a long narrow body consisting of a head (the globus major), a tail, globus minor and a body. Vas deferens is a pipe which commences at the lower part of the globus minor to the epididymis, runs along with the spermatic cords to the base of the bladder, becomes sacculated there and unites with the duct of the vesiculae seminales to form the common ejaculatory duct, and open into the prostatic portion of urethra. The sparmatic cord consists of the vas deferens, the arteries and nerves of the vas deferens and of the spermatic cord etc. Vesiculae seminales are two sacculated pouches ‘ placed at the base of the bladder. They enter the prostate in the middle line after joining with vas deferens.
In the Female—The external organs or vulva comprises: (1) The Mons veneris—which is the hairy eminence in front of pubis. (2) The Labia majora are the two lip-like folds extending from the mons to the perineum; (3) the anterior and posterior junctions of these labia are called the anterior and posterior commissures. A small transverse fold is found in the posterior commissure called the fourchette, (4) Labia minora or Nymphae are folds of mucous membrane stucked in under the labia majora. (5) The clitoris corresponds to the penis and is placed just before the anterior commissure. (6) The urethra (1⅓ inches long) is embedded in the anterior wall of —(7) vagina, which is a dilated canal, extending from the vulva to the uterus, being about 5 inches long; its lower end is embraced by the spincter vagina.
The internal organs comprise the uterus and its adnexa (the fallopian tubes and ovaries).
Uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ, flattened from before backwards and suspended in the pelvis between the bladder and rectum. It is 3 inches long and it possesses a broad upper end or fundus, a body and a neck or cervix. The cervix is surrounded by the vagina and the transverse opening at the tip of the cervix is called the Os. The uterus, its adnexa are suspended inside the two folds of peritoneum called broad ligament. The round ligaments are two cords placed between the layers of the broad ligament and they run up to the inguinal canal to be lost in the labia.
Fallopian Tubes (one on each side), 4 inches long, are hollow inside; they commence from the side of the fundus of uterus and end in a fimbriated, free extremity near the ovary.
Ovaries (one on each side) are flattened ovoid bodies corresponding to the testis: they are situated in the posterior part of broad ligament.