Up to half of infertile couples—those who are unable to conceive despite engaging in frequent, unprotected sexual activity for a year or longer—have male infertility as a contributing factor.

Male infertility can be brought on by illnesses, injuries, chronic health issues, lifestyle choices, and other factors, and is characterized by low sperm production, abnormal sperm function, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm.

CausesIt takes a complex process for men to become fertile, and certain conditions must be met in order to make your partner pregnant:

  • At least one of your testicles must be functioning normally, and your body must produce enough testosterone and other hormones to initiate and maintain sperm production. **You must produce healthy sperm.** Initially, this involves the growth and formation of the male reproductive organs during puberty.
  • After being produced in the testicles, sperm are transported through delicate tubes until they combine with semen and are expelled from the penis as ejaculate.
  • There must be enough sperm in the semen. A low sperm count, defined as less than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or less than 39 million per ejaculate, reduces the likelihood that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner’s egg.
  • Sperm must be active and functional in order to reach or penetrate your partner’s egg. If your sperm exhibits abnormal motility or function, it may not be able to do so.

Medical causes

Numerous medical conditions and treatments, such as the following, can affect male fertility negatively.

  • The most frequent reversible cause of male infertility is a varicocele, which is an enlargement of the veins that drain the testis. Although the precise reason for varicoceles to impair sperm quality is unknown, they may be linked to abnormal testicular temperature regulation.

In vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF, may yield better results if the varicocele is treated because it can increase sperm quantity and quality.

  • Even though some infections can cause permanent testicular damage, most of the time sperm can still be extracted. These infections include inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis), some sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea or HIV.
  • A number of medical conditions, such as diabetes, spinal injuries, medications, and surgery of the bladder, prostate, or urethra, can result in retrograde ejaculation, which is when semen enters the bladder during an orgasm rather than coming out the tip of the penis.

Even though some men with spinal cord injuries or specific diseases are unable to ejaculate semen, they still produce sperm, which is frequently still retrievable for use in assisted reproductive techniques.

  • Antibodies that target sperm. Immune system cells called anti-sperm antibodies mistakenly view sperm as dangerous invaders and make an effort to remove them.
  • In some cases, surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy to treat tumors can affect male fertility. Cancers and nonmalignant tumors can directly affect the male reproductive organs, via the glands that release hormones related to reproduction, such as the pituitary gland, or through unknown causes.
  • Decreased fertility is more likely in men who have had undescended testicles, a condition in which one or both testicles do not pass through the scrotum (the sac where the testicles normally reside) during fetal development in some males.
  • Hormone imbalances. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal issues have a number of potential underlying causes, including abnormalities affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, which can have an impact on other hormonal systems such as the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  • Several different tubes that carry sperm can be blocked for a variety of reasons, such as unintentional surgery-related injury, previous infections, trauma, or abnormal development, such as with cystic fibrosis or comparable inherited conditions.

Any level of obstruction is possible, including the testicle itself, the tubes that drain it, the epididymis, the vas deferens, close to the ejaculatory ducts, and the urethra.

  • Chromosome abnormalities. Other genetic syndromes linked to infertility include cystic fibrosis, Kallmann’s syndrome, and Kartagener’s syndrome. In Klinefelter’s syndrome, a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (instead of one X and one Y), the male reproductive system develops abnormally.
  • Erectile dysfunction, early ejaculation, painful sex, anatomical anomalies like hypospadias, which has a urethral opening beneath the penis, and relationship or psychological issues that interfere with sex are examples of problems with sexual intercourse.
  • Fertility may improve after switching to a gluten-free diet if you have celiac disease, a digestive disorder brought on by sensitivity to gluten.
  • Certain drugs. Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, chemotherapy, some antifungal drugs, some ulcer medications, and certain other drugs can reduce male fertility and sperm production.
  • Prior operations. **Previous operations.** Certain operations, such as vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries, large abdominal operations performed for testicular and rectal cancers, among others, may prevent you from having sperm in your ejaculate. In most cases, surgery can be carried out to either reverse these blockages or to retrieve sperm directly from the epididymis and testicles.

Environmental causes

Overexposure to a variety of environmental factors, such as heat, toxins, and chemicals, can impair sperm function or production.

  • Industrial chemicals. Prolonged exposure to lead, pesticides, herbicides, organic solvents, benzenes, toluene, xylene, toluene, toluene, toluene, toluene, and toluene-based paints may lower sperm counts.
  • Lead or other heavy metal exposure may also contribute to infertility.
  • Radiation or X-rays. Radiation exposure can impair sperm synthesis, though it frequently returns to normal after a while. High doses of radiation can result in sperm synthesis that is permanently impaired.
  • Although research is scarce and ambiguous, frequent use of saunas or hot tubs may temporarily lower sperm count due to elevated temperatures, which are known to affect sperm production and function.

The temperature in your scrotum may rise and potentially slightly lower sperm production if you sit for extended periods of time, wear tight clothing, or work on a laptop computer.

Health, lifestyle and other causes

Men’s infertility also has other causes, such as:

  • Illegal drug use. The use of cocaine or marijuana can temporarily lower the quantity and quality of your sperm, as can the use of anabolic steroids taken to increase muscle strength and growth.
  • Alcohol consumption. Drinking too much alcohol can cause liver disease, which can affect fertility, as well as lower testosterone levels, erectile dysfunction, and a reduction in sperm production.
  • Smoking tobacco may result in men having fewer sperm than non-smokers, and exposure to secondhand smoke may also have an impact on male fertility.
  • Severe or persistent emotional stress, including issues with fertility, can affect your sperm count. Stress can interfere with some hormones required to produce sperm.
  • In addition to having a direct effect on sperm, obesity can alter hormones in men, reducing their ability to reproduce.

There is conflicting evidence to support the link between certain occupations and a risk of infertility, such as those requiring prolonged sitting, such as truck driving, or welding.

Symptoms–There may be no other obvious signs or symptoms of male infertility, but in some cases, an underlying issue like an inherited disorder, hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle, or a condition that prevents sperm from passing through can cause symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of male infertility include the following, even though the majority of affected men do not experience any symptoms aside from their inability to conceive a child:

  • Erectile dysfunction, or difficulties maintaining an erection, can cause issues with sexual function, such as difficulty ejaculating or ejaculating small amounts of fluid.
  • A testicle-related lump, ache, or swelling
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Inability to smell
  • Abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia)
  • Hair loss on the face or body, or other chromosomal or hormonal anomalies
  • less than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or less than 39 million sperm in total per ejaculate, respectively, is sperm count below average.


AGNUS CASTUS 30When both sexual desire and physical ability are absent, Agnus Castus is recommended. Genitals are relaxed, flaccid, and cold. Agnus is one of the top remedies for male infertility with erectile dysfunction.

ARGENTUM NITRICUM 6—Argentum nitricum is an effective treatment for male infertility with erectile dysfunction. Erections fail when coition is attempted. Coition is painful and desire-wanting. Argentum niticum patients are melancholic, fearful of serious illness. They are impulsive, want to do things right away. They also complain of flatulence. There is a strong desire for sweets.

CALADIUM 30Caladium is the best option for impotency with mental depression, impotency with weak erections, relaxation of the penis during excitement, and infertility in men with erectile dysfunction.

DAMIANA Q-Damiana works magically to increase sperm count and treat erectile dysfunction. Sperms are absent from semen, so it’s a great medicine for boosting sperm count.

SELENIUM 30-Selenium is recommended when sexual desire increases but decreases ability.Selenium is the best treatment for the active movement of sperm.Selenium is helpful for slow, weak erections with rapid emissions.Involuntary semen discharges may also be present.Selenium is an effective medication for infertility in males from erectile dysfunction.

X RAY 30-XRay helps to increase sperm count and improves both the quality and quantity of sperms, making it one of the best medications for male infertility caused by a low sperm count.

CONIUM MACULATUM 30Conium is recommended when male infertility is accompanied by orchitis, when the testicles are enlarged, hard, and swollen, when there is a history of sexual desire suppression, and when there are no sperm in the semen.

COBALTUM 30– Emissions without erection, lumbar backache, weak legs, brown spots in the genitalia and abdomen, and male infertility with erectile dysfunction can all be treated with cobaltum.

SABAL SERRULATA Q–Sabal Serrulata is one of the best homeopathic treatments for male infertility caused by testicular wasting (atrophy), as well as for male infertility caused by enlarged prostate or prostatitis.

MEDORRHINUM 1000When infertility is brought on by the presence of pus cells or RBCs in semen, memorrhinum is prescribed.

TRIBULUS TER. QTribulus ter. Tribulus ter. is effective for correcting semen and sperms, where sperms are absent or are in low count. Weak and thin semen. Poor mobility of sperms.

TITANIUM 1000Another successful treatment for male infertility is titanium, which is the best option when there is back pain and significant weakness or premature ejaculation during coitus.

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